A total of 15 individuals with cervical dystonia and good outcome after pallidal deep brain stimulation underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging under three conditions: stimulation using a priori clinically determined optimal settings (ON-Op), non-optimal settings (ON-NOp), and stimulation off (OFF). ON-Op > OFF and ON-Op > ON-NOp were both associated with significant deactivation within sensorimotor cortex (changes not seen with ON-NOp > OFF). Brain responses to stimulation were related to individual long-term clinical improvement (R = 0.73, R2 = 0.53, p = 0.001). The relationship was consistent when this model included four additional patients with generalized or truncal dystonia. These findings highlight the potential for immediate imaging-based biomarkers of clinical efficacy. ANN NEUROL 2022;92:418-424.
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