Genotoxicity and Cytotoxicity Comparison of Calcium Silicate-Based and Resin-Based Sealers on Human Periodontal Ligament Stem Cells

Eur Endod J. 2022 Jun;7(2):129-134. doi: 10.14744/eej.2022.09326.


Objective: This study aimed to assess the genotoxicity and cytotoxicity of Sealer Plus BC (SBC), AH Plus (AHP) and MTA Fillapex (MTF).

Methods: Human periodontal ligament dental stem cells (hPDLSCs) from third molars were isolated and cultured in a clonogenic medium. Cells were maintained in an incubator, and cell growth was monitored daily. hPDLSCs were characterised under flow cytometry and stem cell surface markers. The tested groups were a control group, SBC, AHP and MTF. Each sealer was prepared according to the manufacturer's instructions and placed in a clonogenic medium to produce a conditioned media. Conditioned media were then diluted to 10% to be placed in contact with culture cells in cell viability assay afterwards. The cells were harvested and plated into 96 wells culture plates. Genotoxicity was assessed by evaluation of micronucleus formation and cytotoxicity by MTT-based assay. All experiments were performed in triplicate. Data normality was verified by the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. Statistical analysis for genotoxicity was performed with Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn's tests and two-way ANOVA for cytotoxicity, both with a significance level of 5%.

Results: Cells expressed typical levels of mesenchymal stem cell surface markers. No differences in the number of micronuclei were observed among all groups (P>0.05). In all periods analysed (24, 48, and 72 h), the sealers presented statistically different results for cell viability (P<0.05), with SBC presenting the lowest cytotoxicity, followed by the control group, MTF, and AHP.

Conclusion: All sealers presented low genotoxicity, and Sealer Plus BC presented the lowest cytotoxicity.

MeSH terms

  • Calcium Compounds
  • Culture Media, Conditioned
  • Humans
  • Periodontal Ligament*
  • Root Canal Filling Materials* / toxicity
  • Silicates
  • Stem Cells


  • Calcium Compounds
  • Culture Media, Conditioned
  • Root Canal Filling Materials
  • Silicates
  • calcium silicate