Assessment of the relationship between 25-hydroxyvitamin D and albuminuria in type 2 diabetes mellitus

BMC Endocr Disord. 2022 Jul 4;22(1):171. doi: 10.1186/s12902-022-01088-2.


Background: Diabetic nephropathy occurs in about one-third of diabetic patients. This health problem is characterized by increased urinary albumin excretion, leading to decreased glomerular filtration rate and renal failure. In this regard, previous investigations have revealed the possibility of a relationship between vitamin D deficiency and diabetic nephropathy. The present study assessed the relationship between vitamin D deficiency and albuminuria in patients with type 2 diabetes.

Methods: This study was conducted with 200 participants with type 2 diabetes mellitus from December 2019 to January 2021. The patients' 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) serum level and urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR) were measured concurrently. Afterward, the subjects were divided into three groups based on their albuminuria level. Finally, 25OHD serum level and other clinical characteristics were compared among these albuminuria groups, and the relation between albuminuria level and 25OHD was analyzed.

Results: The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in macroalbuminuric patients (UACR≥300 mg/g) was 61.8%, and in microalbuminuric (30 ≤ UACR< 300 mg/g) and normoalbuminuric groups (UACR< 30 mg/g) was 33.3% and 24%, respectively. Further analysis revealed a significant negative relationship between 25OHD and albuminuria(r = - 0.257, p-value< 0.001). According to ROC curve analysis, a 25OHD level ≤ 21 ng/ml was considered an optimal cut-off point value for having macroalbuminuria in diabetic patients.

Conclusions: The current study evaluates the relation between vitamin D deficiency and the prevalence of albuminuria in the setting of diabetes. Overall, the prevalence of macroalbuminuria increased when the 25OHD serum level was less than 20 ng/ml.

Keywords: Albuminuria; Diabetic nephropathy; Vitamin D.

MeSH terms

  • Albumins
  • Albuminuria / epidemiology
  • Albuminuria / etiology
  • Calcifediol
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2* / complications
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2* / epidemiology
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2* / urine
  • Diabetic Nephropathies* / diagnosis
  • Diabetic Nephropathies* / epidemiology
  • Diabetic Nephropathies* / etiology
  • Humans
  • Vitamin D / analogs & derivatives
  • Vitamin D Deficiency* / complications
  • Vitamin D Deficiency* / epidemiology


  • Albumins
  • Vitamin D
  • 25-hydroxyvitamin D
  • Calcifediol