Use of heated tobacco products, moderate alcohol drinking, and anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibody titers after BNT162b2 vaccination among Japanese healthcare workers

Prev Med. 2022 Aug:161:107123. doi: 10.1016/j.ypmed.2022.107123. Epub 2022 Jul 1.


The effect of heated tobacco products (HTPs) use and moderate alcohol drinking on immunogenicity to coronavirus disease (COVID-19) vaccines remain elusive. This study aimed to examine the association of tobacco product use and alcohol consumption with anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike IgG antibody titers after the BNT162b2 vaccine. Participants were 3433 healthcare workers receiving two vaccine doses in the 4 national centers for advanced medical and research in Japan. Smoking status and alcohol consumption were assessed via a questionnaire, and anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike IgG titers were measured with chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay using serum collected on the median of 64 days after the second vaccination. Multilevel linear regression models were used to estimate the geometric mean titers (GMT) and the ratios of means (RoM) between groups with adjustment for covariates. Compared with never-smokers (GMT = 118), IgG antibody titers were significantly lower among HTPs users (including those who also smoked cigarettes) (GMT = 105; RoM = 0.89 [95%CI: 0.78-0.99]) and exclusive cigarettes smokers (GMT = 98; RoM = 0.81 [95%CI: 0.71-0.92]). Compared with non-drinkers of alcohol (GMT = 123), alcohol drinkers consuming <1 go/day (GMT = 113; RoM = 0.93 [95%CI: 0.88-0.98]), 1-1.9 go/day (GMT = 104; RoM = 0.85 [95%CI: 0.78-0.93]), and ≥ 2 go/day (GMT = 103; RoM = 0.84 [95%CI: 0.74-0.96]) had significantly lower antibody titers (P for trend<0.01). Spline analysis showed a large reduction of antibody until around 1 go/day of alcohol consumption, and then they gradually decreased. Results suggest that in addition to conventional cigarette smoking and heavy alcohol drinking, HTPs use and moderate alcohol drinking may be predictors of lower immunological response to COVID-19 vaccine.

Keywords: Alcohol consumption; COVID-19; Heated tobacco products; Immunogenicity; Smoking; Vaccine.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Alcohol Drinking
  • BNT162 Vaccine
  • COVID-19 Vaccines
  • COVID-19* / prevention & control
  • Health Personnel
  • Humans
  • Immunoglobulin G
  • Japan
  • Tobacco Products*
  • Vaccination


  • COVID-19 Vaccines
  • Immunoglobulin G
  • BNT162 Vaccine