Sea-level projections using a NARX-NN model of tide gauge data for the coastal city of Kuala Terengganu in Malaysia

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2022 Jul 5. doi: 10.1007/s11356-022-21662-4. Online ahead of print.

Abstract

The impact of global warming presents an increased risk to the world's shorelines. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) reported that the twenty-first century experienced a severe global mean sea-level rise due to human-induced climate change. Therefore, coastal planners require reasonably accurate estimates of the rate of sea-level rise and the potential impacts, including extreme sea-level changes, floods, and shoreline erosion. Also, land loss as a result of disturbance of shoreline is of interest as it damages properties and infrastructure. Using a nonlinear autoregressive network with an exogenous input (NARX) model, this study attempted to simulate (1991 to 2012) and predict (2013-2020) sea-level change along Merang kechil to Kuala Marang in Terengganu state shoreline areas. The simulation results show a rising trend with a maximum rate of 28.73 mm/year and an average of about 8.81 mm/year. In comparison, the prediction results show a rising sea level with a maximum rate of 79.26 mm/year and an average of about 25.34 mm/year. The database generated from this study can be used to inform shoreline defense strategies adapting to sea-level rise, flood, and erosion. Scientists can forecast sea-level increases beyond 2020 using simulated sea-level data up to 2020 and apply it for future research. The data also helps decision-makers choose measures for vulnerable shoreline settlements to adapt to sea-level rise. Notably, the data will provide essential information for policy development and implementation to facilitate operational decision-making processes for coastal cities.

Keywords: Climatic; Environmental data analysis; NARX; Shoreline; Simulation; Time series.