Binary Synergistic Combinations of Lavender and Fennel Essential Oils with Amoxicillin

Planta Med. 2023 Jul;89(8):800-807. doi: 10.1055/a-1891-1119. Epub 2022 Jul 4.


Microbial resistance is an important problem in modern healthcare systems. In addition to drug resistance, the side effects of current antibiotic applications are also known issues. In this present study, binary combinations of amoxicillin with European Pharmacopoeia quality lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) and fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) essential oils were evaluated against human pathogenic microbial strains. The checkerboard method was used to quantify the efficacy of the essential oils in combination with amoxicillin. As an initial result, remarkable in vitro antimicrobial activity was observed at relatively low amoxicillin concentrations using different oil combinations against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212, Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579, Escherichia coli NRRL B-3008, Salmonella typhi (clinical isolate), respectively. Fractional inhibitory concentrations were calculated and interpreted in terms of addition, synergy, antagonism, or indifferent. A synergistic interaction with the combination F. vulgare essential oil and amoxicillin (fractional inhibitory concentration index = 8.05 × 10-4) was observed against the pathogens E. faecalis and Escherichia coli. Both essential oils together and in combination with amoxicillin showed a synergistic effect with possible future applications.

MeSH terms

  • Amoxicillin / pharmacology
  • Anti-Bacterial Agents / pharmacology
  • Escherichia coli
  • Foeniculum*
  • Humans
  • Lavandula*
  • Microbial Sensitivity Tests
  • Oils, Volatile* / pharmacology
  • Plant Oils / pharmacology


  • Oils, Volatile
  • Plant Oils
  • Amoxicillin
  • Anti-Bacterial Agents