Nanomaterials-Based Sensors for Respiratory Viral Detection: A Review

IEEE Sens J. 2021 May 31;21(16):17643-17656. doi: 10.1109/JSEN.2021.3085084. eCollection 2021 Aug 15.


Contagious diseases are the principal cause of mortality, particularly respiratory viruses, a real menace for public health and economic development worldwide. Therefore, timely diagnosis and treatments are the only life-saving strategy to overcome any epidemic and particularly the ongoing prevailing pandemic COVID-19 caused by SARS-CoV-2. A rapid identification, point of care, portable, highly sensitive, stable, and inexpensive device is needed which is exceptionally satisfied by sensor technology. Consequently, the researchers have directed their attention to employing sensors targeting multiple analyses of pathogenic detections across the world. Nanostructured materials (nanoparticles, nanowires, nanobundles, etc.), owing to their unique characteristics such as large surface-to-volume ratio and nanoscale interactions, are widely employed to fabricate facile sensors to meet all the immediate emerging challenges and threats. This review is anticipated to foster researchers in developing advanced nanomaterials-based sensors for the increasing number of COVID-19 cases across the globe. The mechanism of respiratory viral detection by nanomaterials-based sensors has been reported. Moreover, the advantages, disadvantages, and their comparison with conventional sensors are summarized. Furthermore, we have highlighted the challenges and future potential of these sensors for achieving efficient and rapid detection.

Keywords: Nanomaterials; SARS-CoV-2; respiratory viral detection; types of sensors.

Grants and funding

This work was supported by Khalifa University. The work of Gowhar A. Naikoo, Tasbiha Awan, Israr Ul Hassan, and Hiba Salim was supported by The Research Council (TRC), Oman, under Grant Ref: BFP/RGP/HSS/18/122.