In-hospital hyperglycemia but not diabetes mellitus alone is associated with increased in-hospital mortality in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP): a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies prior to COVID-19

BMJ Open Diabetes Res Care. 2022 Jul;10(4):e002880. doi: 10.1136/bmjdrc-2022-002880.


The objective of this review was to quantify the association between diabetes, hyperglycemia, and outcomes in patients hospitalized for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) prior to the COVID-19 pandemic by conducting a systematic review and meta-analysis. Two investigators independently screened records identified in the PubMed (MEDLINE), EMBASE, CINAHL, and Web of Science databases. Cohort and case-control studies quantitatively evaluating associations between diabetes and in-hospital hyperglycemia with outcomes in adults admitted to hospital with CAP were included. Quality was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale, effect size using random-effects models, and heterogeneity using I2 statistics. Thirty-eight studies met the inclusion criteria. Hyperglycemia was associated with in-hospital mortality (adjusted OR 1.28, 95% CI 1.09 to 1.50) and intensive care unit (ICU) admission (crude OR 1.82, 95% CI 1.17 to 2.84). There was no association between diabetes status and in-hospital mortality (adjusted OR 1.04, 95% CI 0.72 to 1.51), 30-day mortality (adjusted OR 1.13, 95% CI 0.77 to 1.67), or ICU admission (crude OR 1.91, 95% CI 0.74 to 4.95). Diabetes was associated with increased mortality in all studies reporting >90-day postdischarge mortality and with longer length of stay only for studies reporting crude (OR 1.50, 95% CI 1.11 to 2.01) results. In adults hospitalized with CAP, in-hospital hyperglycemia but not diabetes alone is associated with increased in-hospital mortality and ICU admission. Diabetes status is associated with increased >90-day postdischarge mortality. Implications for management are that in-hospital hyperglycemia carries a greater risk for in-hospital morbidity and mortality than diabetes alone in patients admitted with non-COVID-19 CAP. Evaluation of strategies enabling timely and effective management of in-hospital hyperglycemia in CAP is warranted.

Keywords: diabetes mellitus, type 2; hospitalization; hyperglycemia; infections.

Publication types

  • Meta-Analysis
  • Review
  • Systematic Review
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aftercare
  • COVID-19*
  • Community-Acquired Infections* / complications
  • Diabetes Mellitus* / epidemiology
  • Hospital Mortality
  • Hospitals
  • Humans
  • Hyperglycemia* / complications
  • Pandemics
  • Patient Discharge
  • Pneumonia* / complications