Malignant obstruction of the inferior vena cava: clinical experience with the self-expanding Sinus-XL stent system

Abdom Radiol (NY). 2022 Oct;47(10):3604-3614. doi: 10.1007/s00261-022-03587-1. Epub 2022 Jul 6.

Abstract

Purpose: To evaluate the technical and clinical outcome of Sinus-XL stent placement in patients with malignant obstruction syndrome of the inferior vena cava.

Methods: Between October 2010 and January 2021, 21 patients with different malignant primary disease causing inferior vena cava obstruction were treated with Sinus-XL stent implantation. Procedural data, technical and clinical outcome parameters were retrospectively analyzed.

Results: Technical success was 100%. Analysis of available manometry data revealed a significant reduction of the mean translesional pressure gradient following the procedure (p = 0.008). Reintervention rate was 4.8% (1/21). The available follow-up imaging studies showed primary and primary-assisted stent patency rates of 93% (13/14) and 100% (14/14), respectively. Major complications did not occur. The clinical success regarding lower extremity edema was 82.4% (14/17) for the first and 85.7% (18/21) for the last follow-up. Longer lengths of IVC obstruction were associated with reduced clinical improvement after the procedure (p = 0.025). Improvement of intraprocedural manometry results and lower extremity edema revealed only minor correlation. Ascites and anasarca were not significantly positively affected by the procedure.

Conclusion: Sinus-XL stent placement in patients with malignant inferior vena cava obstruction showed high technical success and low complication rates. Regarding the clinical outcome, significant symptom improvement could be achieved in lower extremity edema, whereas ascites and anasarca lacked satisfying symptom relief. Based on our results, this procedure should be considered as a suitable therapy in a palliative care setting for patients with advanced malignant disease.

Keywords: Endovascular; Inferior vena cava; Interventional procedures; Oncology; Palliative care; Stent.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Ascites / complications
  • Edema / complications
  • Endovascular Procedures* / methods
  • Humans
  • Neoplasms* / pathology
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Stents / adverse effects
  • Syndrome
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Vascular Diseases* / complications
  • Vena Cava, Inferior / diagnostic imaging
  • Vena Cava, Inferior / pathology