Current Use of Probiotics and Prebiotics in Allergy

J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract. 2022 Sep;10(9):2219-2242. doi: 10.1016/j.jaip.2022.06.038. Epub 2022 Jul 2.


The microbiome plays an important role in the pathogenesis of allergic diseases. This review updates the reader on studies aimed at influencing allergic diseases through modulation of the gut microflora. A nonsystematic review of the literature was performed, focusing on relevant trials evaluating the effect of probiotics/prebiotics/symbiotics in the prevention and treatment of allergic disease. For each allergic disease, we were able to find not only a substantial number of clinical trials but also systematic reviews. Specific guidelines, based on systematic reviews and meta-analyses, are available for the prevention of allergic disease and for the treatment of food allergy. In each of the areas examined-allergic rhinitis, allergic asthma, atopic dermatitis, food allergy, and gastrointestinal allergies-there are substantial uncertainties in the efficacy of gut microflora modulation in prevention and treatment. At present, practicing clinicians can avail themselves of intestinal flora modulators as an adjunct in the prevention of atopic dermatitis but not of other forms of allergic diseases. Their effects on the treatment of allergic diseases remain controversial.

Keywords: Allergic rhinitis; Asthma; Atopic dermatitis; Food allergy; Prebiotics; Probiotics.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Dermatitis, Atopic* / etiology
  • Dermatitis, Atopic* / therapy
  • Food Hypersensitivity* / etiology
  • Food Hypersensitivity* / prevention & control
  • Humans
  • Prebiotics
  • Probiotics* / therapeutic use
  • Rhinitis, Allergic* / complications
  • Rhinitis, Allergic* / therapy


  • Prebiotics