Comparison of the Effectiveness of Once-Daily Alogliptin/Metformin and Twice-Daily Anagliptin/Metformin Combination Tablet in a Randomized, Parallel-Group, Open-Label Trial in Japanese Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

Diabetes Ther. 2022 Aug;13(8):1559-1569. doi: 10.1007/s13300-022-01292-2. Epub 2022 Jul 6.


Introduction: The combination tablets of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors and metformin are used for both once-daily and twice-daily agents in Japan. If there is no difference in effectiveness between the once-daily and twice-daily DPP-4 inhibitor/metformin combination tablets, the once-daily agent is advantageous in terms of frequency of administration. The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of once-daily alogliptin/metformin combination tablet (alogliptin 25 mg/metformin 500 mg) and twice-daily anagliptin/metformin combination tablet low dose (LD) (anagliptin 100 mg/metformin 250 mg).

Methods: Forty-eight Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes whose metformin administration of 250 mg twice daily had remained unchanged for at least 8 weeks, except when using DPP-4 inhibitors, glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists, or insulin, were randomized to either the once-daily alogliptin/metformin combination tablet group or the twice-daily anagliptin/metformin combination tablet LD group. The primary endpoint was the difference in glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels from baseline to week 12 of administration, whereas the secondary endpoints were fasting blood glucose, body mass index (BMI), and adherence.

Results: Forty-four patients completed the study, and intention-to-treat analyses were performed. The adjusted mean value (standard error) for the change in HbA1c from week 0 to 12, was - 0.75 (0.109)% for the once-daily alogliptin/metformin combination tablet group and - 0.65 (0.109)% for the twice-daily anagliptin/metformin combination tablet LD group, with an intergroup difference of - 0.10% (95% confidence interval, CI - 0.407, 0.215). The upper limit of the bilateral 95% CI was 0.215%, below the 0.40% pre-defined as the non-inferiority margin. Fasting blood glucose, BMI, and adherence were not significantly different between the groups.

Conclusions: The once-daily alogliptin/metformin combination tablet was non-inferior to the twice-daily anagliptin/metformin combination tablet LD in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes.

Trial registration: University Hospital Medical Information Network Clinical Trial Registry (UMIN-CTR) (registration number: UMIN000034951).

Keywords: Alogliptin; Anagliptin; Combination tablet; Dose frequency; Metformin.