Purpose of review: Very-low-carbohydrate (VLC) and ketogenic diets (KDs) have been used for weight loss and more recently in patients with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. The impact of VLC and KDs on lipids/lipoproteins is a concern. The purpose of this review is to discuss the impact of KDs on body weight and lipids/lipoproteins.
Recent findings: VLC/KDs contribute to greater weight loss in the short term (< 6 months) compared to higher carbohydrate diets, but there is typically no difference between the diets by 12 months. Triglyceride and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels generally improve, but there is a variable response in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, with some individuals experiencing a dramatic increase, particularly those with latent genetic dyslipidemias. Healthcare professionals should educate patients on the risks and benefits of following VLC/KDs and encourage the consumption of carbohydrate-rich foods associated with positive health outcomes.
Keywords: Carbohydrate restriction; Energy expenditure; Ketogenic diet; Lipids; Lipoproteins; Weight loss.
© 2022. The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature.