Impact of Infectious Diseases Consultation on the Outcome of Patients With Enterococcal Bacteremia: A Systematic Literature Review and Meta-analysis

Open Forum Infect Dis. 2022 Apr 12;9(7):ofac200. doi: 10.1093/ofid/ofac200. eCollection 2022 Jul.


Background: Enterococcal bacteremia carries significant mortality. While multiple studies have evaluated the impact of infectious disease consultation (IDC) on this condition, these studies were limited by the low numbers of patients enrolled. This systemic literature review and meta-analysis was conducted to determine whether IDC is associated with a mortality benefit among patients with enterococcal bacteremia.

Methods: We performed a systematic literature search using 5 databases for studies evaluating IDC among patients with enterococcal bacteremia. We conducted a meta-analysis to assess whether IDC was associated with reduced mortality. Random-effects models were used to calculate pooled odds ratios (pORs). Heterogeneity was evaluated using I 2 estimation and the Cochran's Q statistic test.

Results: The systematic literature review revealed 6496 reports, from which 18 studies were evaluated in the literature review and 16 studies in the meta-analysis. When all studies were pooled, the association between IDC and mortality was not statistically significant with a pOR of 0.81 (95% CI, 0.61-1.08) and substantial heterogeneity (I 2 = 58%). When the studies were limited to those reporting multivariate analysis including IDC, there was a significant protective effect of IDC (pOR, 0.40; 95% CI, 0.24-0.68) without heterogeneity (I 2 = 0%). Some studies also showed additional benefits to IDC, including appropriate antibiotic therapy and improved diagnostic use.

Conclusions: IDC was associated with 60% lower odds of mortality when patients were well-matched, potentially through improvement in the care of patients with enterococcal bacteremia. IDC should be considered part of routine care for patients with enterococcal bacteremia.

Keywords: Enterococcus; enterococcal bacteremia; infectious diseases consultation.