Novel insights in Turner syndrome

Curr Opin Pediatr. 2022 Aug 1;34(4):447-460. doi: 10.1097/MOP.0000000000001135. Epub 2022 Jul 5.


Purpose of review: Turner syndrome is the most common sex chromosome abnormality in female individuals, affecting 1/2000-1/2500 female newborns. Despite the high incidence of this condition, the mechanisms underlying the development of multiorgan dysfunction have not been elucidated.

Recent findings: Clinical features involve multiple organ systems and include short stature, dysmorphic facial features, delayed puberty and gonadal failure, cardiac and renal abnormalities, audiologic abnormalities, and a high prevalence of endocrine and autoimmune disorders. Paucity of available genotype/phenotype correlation limits the ability of clinicians to provide accurate guidance and management. Given the advent of robust genetic testing and analysis platforms, developments in the genetic basis of disease are materializing at a rapid pace.

Summary: The objective of this review is to highlight the recent advances in knowledge and to provide a framework with which to apply new data to the foundational understanding of the condition.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Dwarfism*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Turner Syndrome* / diagnosis
  • Turner Syndrome* / epidemiology
  • Turner Syndrome* / genetics