Objective: Previous studies on carotid endarterectomy and transfemoral carotid artery stenting demonstrated that perioperative outcomes differed according to preoperative neurologic injury severity, but this has not been assessed in transcarotid artery revascularization (TCAR). In this study, we examined contemporary perioperative outcomes in patients who underwent TCAR stratified by specific preprocedural symptom status.
Methods: Patients who underwent TCAR between 2016 and 2021 in the Vascular Quality Initiative were included. We stratified patients into the following groups based on preprocedural symptoms: asymptomatic, recent (symptoms occurring <180 days before TCAR) ocular transient ischemic attack (TIA), recent hemispheric TIA, recent stroke, or formerly symptomatic (symptoms occurring >180 days before TCAR). First, we used trend tests to assess outcomes in asymptomatic patients versus those with an increasing severity of recent neurologic injury (recent ocular TIA vs recent hemispheric TIA vs recent stroke). Then, we compared outcomes between asymptomatic and formerly symptomatic patients. Our primary outcome was in-hospital stroke/death rates. Multivariable logistic regression was used to adjust for demographics and comorbidities across groups.
Results: We identified 18,477 patients undergoing TCAR, of whom 62.0% were asymptomatic, 3.2% had a recent ocular TIA, 7.6a % had recent hemispheric TIA, 18.0% had a recent stroke, and 9.2% were formerly symptomatic. In patients with recent symptoms, we observed higher rates of stroke/death with increasing neurologic injury severity: asymptomatic 1.1% versus recent ocular TIA 0.8% versus recent hemispheric TIA 2.1% versus recent stroke 3.1% (Ptrend < .01). In formerly symptomatic patients, the rate of stroke/death was higher compared with asymptomatic patients, but this difference was not statistically significant (1.7% vs 1.1%; P = .06). After risk adjustment, compared with asymptomatic patients, there was a higher odds of stroke/death in patients with a recent stroke (odds ratio [OR], 2.8; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.1-3.7; P < .01), a recent hemispheric TIA (OR, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.3-3.0; P < .01), and former symptoms (OR, 1.6; 95% CI, 1.1-2.5; P = .02), but there was no difference in stroke/death rates in patients with a recent ocular TIA (OR, 0.9; 95% CI, 0.4-2.2; P = .78).
Conclusions: After TCAR, compared with asymptomatic status, a recent stroke and a recent hemispheric TIA were associated with higher stroke/death rates, whereas a recent ocular TIA was associated with similar stroke/death rates. In addition, a formerly symptomatic status was associated with higher stroke/death rates compared with an asymptomatic status. Overall, our findings suggest that classifying patients undergoing TCAR as symptomatic versus asymptomatic may be an oversimplification and that patients' specific preoperative neurologic symptoms should instead be used in risk assessment and outcome reporting for TCAR.
Keywords: Carotid artery stenosis; Carotid artery stenting; Cerebrovascular disease; Stroke; Transcarotid artery revascularization.
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