COVID-19 pandemic has affected all age groups globally including pregnant women and their neonates. The aim of the study was to understand outcomes in neonates of mothers with COVID-19 during the first and second waves of COVID-19 pandemic. A retrospective analysis of 2524 neonates born to SARS-CoV-2-infected mothers was conducted during the first wave (n = 1782) and second wave (n = 742) of the COVID-19 pandemic at five study sites of the PregCovid registry in Maharashtra, India. A significant difference was noted in preterm birth, which was higher in the second wave (15.0%, 111/742) compared to the first wave (7.8%, 139/1782) (P < 0.001). The proportion of neonates requiring NICU admission was significantly higher in the second wave (19.0%, 141/742) as compared to that in the first wave (14.8%, 264/1782) (P < 0.05). On comparing regional differences, significantly higher neonatal complications were reported from Mumbai metropolitan region (P < 0.05). During the second wave of COVID-19, birth asphyxia and prematurity were 3.8- and 2.1-fold higher respectively (P < 0.001). Neonatal resuscitation at birth was significantly higher in second wave (3.4%, 25/742 vs 1.8%, 32/1782) (P < 0.05). The prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection in neonates was comparable (4.2% vs 4.6%) with no significant difference between the two waves.
Conclusion: Higher incidence of adverse outcomes in neonates born to SARS-CoV-2-infected mothers in the second wave of COVID-19 as compared to the first wave.
Trial registration: PregCovid study is registered with the Clinical Trial Registry of India (CTRI/2020/05/025423, Registered on 28/05/2020).
What is known: • The second wave of COVID-19 was more lethal to pregnant women than the first wave. Newborns are at risk of developing complications.
What is new: • Birth asphyxia, prematurity, and neonatal resuscitation at birth were significantly higher in the second wave as compared to those in the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in India.
Keywords: NICU; Neonatal complications; SARS-CoV-2; Second wave.
© 2022. The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature.