Acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) is a genetically heterogeneous and aggressive cancer of the Hematopoietic Stem/progenitor cells. It is distinguished by the uncontrollable clonal growth of malignant myeloid stem cells in the bone marrow, venous blood, and other body tissues. AML is the most predominant of leukemias occurring in adults (25%) and children (15-20%). The relapse after chemotherapy is a major concern in the treatment of AML. The overall 5-year survival rate in young AML patients is about 40-45% whereas in the elderly patients it is less than 10%. Leukemia stem-like cells (LSCs) having the ability to self-renew indefinitely, repopulate and persist longer in the G0/G1 phase play a crucial role in the AML relapse and refractoriness to chemotherapy. Hence, novel treatment strategies and diagnostic biomarkers targeting LSCs are being increasingly investigated. Through this review, we have explored the signaling modulations in the LSCs as the theragnostic targets. The significance of the self-renewal pathways in overcoming the treatment challenges in AML has been highlighted.
Keywords: Acute myeloid leukemia; Chemoresistance; Leukemia stem cells-like cells; Self-renewal pathways; Signaling pathways.
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