Variation in biochemical, physiological and ecophysiological traits among the teak (Tectona grandis Linn. f) seed sources of India

Sci Rep. 2022 Jul 8;12(1):11677. doi: 10.1038/s41598-022-15878-0.


Teak being an iconic timber species the studies on its physiological and biochemical traits are very limited in India and worldwide. As a result, the current study aimed to assess biochemical parameters such as chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, total chlorophyll, carotenoids, chlorophyll ab ratio, proline content, and peroxidase activity, along with physiological parameters such as Chlorophyll stability index, relative water content, and leaf area, as well as ecophysiological traits such as net photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (Gs), intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci), transpiration rate (Tr), Leaf temperature, intrinsic water-use efficiency (iWUE), instantaneous water use efficiency and intrinsic carboxylation efficiency of thirty teak seed sources collected from different states of India. FCRITK 19, FCRITK 21, FCRITK 25, FCRITK 29, and FCRITK 05 were reported to have a greater photosynthetic rate (> 17 µmol m-2 s-1) coupled with a relative water content of more than 50% and a chlorophyll stability index of more than 60%, which could be used in a future genetic improvement programme. Correlation analysis indicated that water use efficiency was found to be strongly but negatively correlated with transpiration rate (-0.601) and stomatal conductance (-0.910). The proline content had a substantial positive correlation with the chlorophyll stability index (0.890), signifying that they are associated with abiotic stress conditions. Cluster analysis was attempted to discriminate the sources based on biochemical, physiological and ecophysiological traits. Eleven sources (FCRITK 25, FCRITK 27, FCRITK 29, FCRITK 14, FCRITK 30, FCRITK 16, FCRITK 05, FCRITK 13, FCRITK 02, FCRITK 17 and FCRITK 15) exhibited superior performance compared to rest of the sources.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Chlorophyll A
  • Chlorophyll* / analysis
  • Lamiaceae*
  • Photosynthesis / physiology
  • Plant Leaves / chemistry
  • Proline
  • Seeds / chemistry
  • Water


  • Water
  • Chlorophyll
  • Proline
  • Chlorophyll A