Determinants of place birth: a multinomial logistic regression and spatial analysis of the Ethiopian mini demographic and health survey data, 2019

BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2022 Jul 8;22(1):553. doi: 10.1186/s12884-022-04880-z.


Background: Maternal and neonatal health significantly improves when birth is attended at health institutions where there are quality services and skilled attendants. In contrary, home birth results in high rates of maternal and neonatal mortality. Thus, this study aimed to determine the spatial distribution of home birth and to identify determinants of place of birth in Ethiopia based on the recent national survey.

Methods: Ethiopian mini-DHS-2019 data was used in this analysis. A weighted sample of 5423 mothers were included. While health facility was a reference, home and health post were used as comparison categories to identify determinants of place of birth in a survey multinomial logistic regression model. An adjusted relative risk ratio, marginal effect, and a corresponding 95% confidence interval and a p-value of < 0.05 were used to declare statistical significance. The Global Moran's I analysis was done by using ArcMap 10.8 to evaluate the clustering of home birth. The prevalence of home birth was predicted by ordinary kriging interpolation. Then, scanning was done by SaTScan V.9.6 software to detect scanning windows with low or high rates of home birth.

Result: Prevalence of home birth in Ethiopia was 52.19% (95% CI: 46.49 - 57.83). Whereas, only 2.99% (95% CI: 1.68 - 5.25) of mothers gave birth in the health posts. Bigger family size, family wealth, multiparity, none and fewer antenatal visits, and low coverage of cluster level 4 + antenatal visits were predictors of home birth. Also, home birth was clustered across enumeration areas and it was over 40% in most parts of the country with > 75% in the Somali region. SaTScan analysis detected most likely primary clusters in the Somali region and secondary clusters in the rest five regions of the country.

Conclusion: Home birth is a common practice in Ethiopia. Among public health facilities, health posts are the least utilized institutions for labor and delivery care. Nationally, implementing the 2016 WHO's recommendations on antenatal care for a positive pregnancy experience and providing quality antenatal and delivery care in public facilities by qualified providers and back-up systems in place could be supportive.

Keywords: Ethiopia; Home birth; Home delivery; Place of birth.

MeSH terms

  • Ethiopia
  • Female
  • Health Surveys
  • Humans
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Logistic Models
  • Parturition*
  • Pregnancy
  • Prenatal Care*
  • Prevalence
  • Spatial Analysis