Urinary microRNAs and Their Significance in Prostate Cancer Diagnosis: A 5-Year Update

Cancers (Basel). 2022 Jun 28;14(13):3157. doi: 10.3390/cancers14133157.


Current routine screening methods for the diagnosis of prostate cancer (PCa) have significantly increased early detection of the disease but often show unsatisfactory analytical parameters. A class of promising markers represents urinary microRNAs (miRNAs). In the last five years, there has been an extensive increase in the number of studies on this topic. Thus, this review aims to update knowledge and point out technical aspects affecting urinary miRNA analysis. The review of relevant literature was carried out by searching the PubMed database for the keywords: microRNA, miRNA, urine, urinary, prostate cancer, and diagnosis. Papers discussed in this review were retrieved using PubMed, and the search strategy was as follows: (urine OR urinary) WITH (microRNA OR miRNA) AND prostate cancer. The search was limited to the last 5 years, January 2017 to December 2021. Based on the defined search strategy, 31 original publications corresponding to the research topic were identified, read and reviewed to present the latest findings and to assess possible translation of urinary miRNAs into clinical practice. Reviews or older publications were read and cited if they valuably extended the context and contributed to a better understanding. Urinary miRNAs are potentially valuable markers for the diagnosis of prostate cancer. Despite promising results, there is still a need for independent validation of exploratory data, which follows a strict widely accepted methodology taking into account the shortcomings and factors influencing the analysis.

Keywords: diagnosis; extracellular vesicles; microRNA; prostate cancer; urine.

Publication types

  • Review