Self-Assessed Aspects of Health 3 Months after COVID-19 Hospitalization-A Swedish Cross-Sectional Study

Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2022 Jun 30;19(13):8020. doi: 10.3390/ijerph19138020.


It is not yet fully understood how the patients self-assess their overall health in the early recovery after COVID-19 and if certain patient groups are more prominent in perceived long-time effects of COVID-19. The aim of this study was to describe self-assessed aspects of health in body function, activity and participation 3 months after hospitalization due to COVID-19 and identify difference between groups depending in age, sex and level of hospital care. This cross-sectional study consists of self-assessed aspects of health and recovery in 168 participants (mean age 64 years old, 69% men) previously hospitalized patients due to COVID-19. We have previously published data, from hospital discharge, on this cohort were predominantly the older patients and previous ICU-treated participants were affected. In this study there were differences in between groups. Of the study population 72% perceived fatigue, 64% respiratory difficulties, 37% perceived symptoms of anxiety. Three-months after COVID-19 this cohort was overall still affected. The recovery process is multifaced and the cohort heterogeneous, hence the rehabilitation needs to be highly individualized, and the follow-up of this patient group is of importance regardless of age, sex and previous level of hospital care.

Keywords: COVID-19; public health; recovery of function; rehabilitation; self-assessment.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Anxiety / epidemiology
  • COVID-19* / epidemiology
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Female
  • Hospitalization
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Sweden / epidemiology

Grants and funding

This study was funded by grants from the Swedish government under an agreement between the Swedish government and the county councils (ALF 942911, ALF 71980), Forte/Formas (2020-02775), Vastragotaland regional research funding (VGFOUREG-940508, VGFOUREG-969267), The Local Research and Development Council Gothenburg and Södra Bohuslän (VGFOUGSB-969990) and Sahlgrenska University hospital research funds (SU-96105).