Garlic, Allium sativum, has long been utilized for a number of medicinal purposes around the world, and its medical benefits have been well documented. The health benefits of garlic likely arise from a wide variety of components, possibly working synergistically. Garlic and garlic extracts, especially aged garlic extracts (AGEs), are rich in bioactive compounds, with potent anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and neuroprotective activities. In light of these effects, garlic and its components have been examined in experimental models of Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most common form of dementia without therapy, and a growing health concern in aging societies. With the aim of offering an updated overview, this paper reviews the chemical composition, metabolism and bioavailability of garlic bioactive compounds. In addition, it provides an overview of signaling mechanisms triggered by garlic derivatives, with a focus on allicin and AGE, to improve learning and memory.
Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease; NLRP3 inflammasome; garlic extracts; inflammation; mechanism of action; oxidative damage.