Probiotics, active microorganisms benefiting human health, currently serve as nutritional supplements and clinical treatments. Periodontitis, a chronic infectious oral disease caused by Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis), activates the host immune response to release numerous proinflammatory cytokines. Here, we aimed to clarify Leuconostoc mesenterica (L. mesenteroides) LVBH107 probiotic effects based on the inhibition of P. gingivalis activities while also evaluating the effectiveness of an in vitro P. gingivalis lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 cell-based inflammation mode. L. mesenteroides LVBH107 survived at acid, bile salts, lysozyme, and hydrogen peroxide conditions, auto-aggregated and co-aggregated with P. gingivalis, exhibited strong hydrophobicity and electrostatic action, and strongly adhered to gingival epithelial and HT-29 cells (thus exhibiting oral tissue adherence and colonization abilities). Moreover, L. mesenteroides LVBH107 exhibited sensitivity to antibiotics erythromycin, doxycycline, minocycline, ampicillin, and others (thus indicating it lacked antibiotic resistance plasmids), effectively inhibited P. gingivalis biofilm formation and inflammation (in vitro inflammation model), reduced the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β) and inflammatory mediators (NO and PGE2), and decreased the expression levels of inflammation related genes. Thus, L. mesenterica LVBH107 holds promise as a probiotic that can inhibit P. gingivalis biofilm formation and exert anti-inflammatory activity to maintain oral health.
Keywords: Leuconostoc mesenteroides; Porphyromonas gingivalis; anti-inflammatory; antibacterial; macrophage.