Primary neuroendocrine tumors and primary neuroendocrine carcinomas of the liver: a proposal for a multidiscipline definition

Hum Pathol. 2023 Feb:132:77-88. doi: 10.1016/j.humpath.2022.07.001. Epub 2022 Jul 6.


Primary hepatic neuroendocrine tumors and primary hepatic neuroendocrine carcinomas are rare and pose challenges for both diagnosis and for determining whether the tumor is primary to the liver versus metastatic disease. The lack of a uniform definition for primary hepatic neuroendocrine neoplasms is also a limitation to understanding and treating these rare tumors. Recently, there have been significant histological advances in the diagnosis and classification of neuroendocrine tumors in general, as well as significant advances in imaging for neuroendocrine neoplasms, all of which are important for their treatment. This article presents a multiple disciplinary definition and proposed guidelines for diagnosing a neuroendocrine tumor/neuroendocrine carcinomas as being primary to the liver.

Keywords: Hepatocellular; Liver; Neuroendocrine carcinoma; Neuroendocrine tumor; Primary.

Publication types

  • Review
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine* / pathology
  • Humans
  • Liver Neoplasms* / pathology
  • Neuroendocrine Tumors* / pathology