Colorectal cancer immunotherapy-Recent progress and future directions

Cancer Lett. 2022 Oct 1:545:215816. doi: 10.1016/j.canlet.2022.215816. Epub 2022 Jul 8.


Compared with conventional chemotherapy and targeted therapy, immunotherapy has changed the treatment prospects of various solid tumors and has recently become the main treatment method for metastatic or recurrent solid tumors, including malignant melanoma, non-small-cell lung cancer, and renal cell carcinoma. The application of immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI)-based immunotherapy in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) has yielded satisfactory results in terms of safety and efficacy, and several immunotherapeutic agents, including pembrolizumab, nivolumab, and ipilimumab, have been approved for the treatment of advanced CRC. The advent of other immunotherapies, such as chimeric antigen receptor-modified T (CAR-T) cells or cancer vaccines, have also contributed to the development of immunotherapy for CRC. Here, we summarize the findings of recent clinical trials on the efficacy of immunotherapy in CRC and briefly describe the mechanisms associated with tumor-intrinsic resistance to ICIs. We then discuss potential biomarkers for predicting the efficacy of immunotherapy.

Keywords: Colorectal carcinoma; Immune checkpoint blockade; Immunotherapy.

Publication types

  • Review
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Antibodies, Monoclonal / pharmacology
  • Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung* / drug therapy
  • Colorectal Neoplasms* / drug therapy
  • Humans
  • Immunologic Factors
  • Immunotherapy / methods
  • Lung Neoplasms* / drug therapy
  • Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy


  • Antibodies, Monoclonal
  • Immunologic Factors