Nonarboviral Equine Encephalitides

Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract. 2022 Aug;38(2):323-338. doi: 10.1016/j.cveq.2022.04.007. Epub 2022 Jul 7.


Several viruses transmitted by biological vectors or through direct contact, air, or ingestion cause neurologic disease in equids. Of interest are viruses of the Togaviridae, Flaviviridae, Rhabdoviridae, Herpesviridae, Bornaviridae, and Bunyaviridae families. Variable degree of inflammation is present with these viruses but lack of an inflammatory response does not rule out their presence. The goal of this article is to provide an overview on pathophysiologic and clinical aspects of nonarboviral equine encephalitides, specifically on lyssaviruses (rabies) and bornaviruses (Borna disease).

Keywords: Borna disease; Bornaviruses; Encephalitis; Encephalomyelitis; Lyssaviruses; Rabies; Rhabdoviruses; Zoonosis.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Horse Diseases*
  • Horses
  • Rabies* / veterinary