Comparison of Haploidentical Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant With or Without Unrelated Cord Blood Infusion in Severe Aplastic Anemia: Outcomes of a Multicenter Study

Front Immunol. 2022 Jun 23:13:912917. doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2022.912917. eCollection 2022.


The purpose of this study in severe aplastic anemia (SAA) patients was to compare the feasibility and efficacy of haploidentical hematological stem cell transplantation combined with a single unrelated cord blood (UCB) infusion (Haplo-cord-HSCT) or haplo-identical HSCT (Haplo-HSCT) alone. The five-year graft-versus-host disease (GVHD)-free or failure-free survival (GFFS) was similar between the two groups (72.4 ± 3.4% vs. 65.4 ± 5.2%, P = 0.178); however, the five-year overall survival (OS) was more favorable in the Haplo-cord-HSCT group than that in the Haplo-HSCT group (84.0 ± 2.8% vs. 72.6 ± 4.9%, P = 0.022), as was transplantation-related mortality (16.4% vs. 27.4%, P = 0.039). Multivariate analysis showed that Haplo-cord HSCT was the only independent determinant of increased OS (P = 0.013). Explorative subgroup analysis showed that only an Human leukocyte antigen-A (HLA-A) allele match between UCB and the recipient was a beneficial factor for GFFS in the Haplo-cord-HSCT group (P = 0.011). In the haplo-cord with an HLA-A match (n = 139) or mismatch (n = 32) or Haplo-HSCT groups, a haplo-cord HLA-A allele match was associated with lower I-IV and III-IV acute GVHD. The haplo-cord with an HLA-A match subgroup also had higher five-year OS than the Haplo-HSCT group (85.4 ± 3.0% vs. 72.6 ± 4.9%, P = 0.013), and higher five-year GFFS than the Haplo-cord HLA-A allele mismatch subgroup (76.2 ± 3.6% vs. 56.3 ± 8.8%, P = 0.011). These findings suggest that the coinfusion of a single UCB potentially improves survival of Haplo-HSCT in SAA patients and that an HLA-A allele-matched UCB is the preferred option.

Keywords: Comparision; Haploidentical donor; Severe aplastic anemia; hematopoietic stem cell transplant; unrelated cord blood.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Comparative Study
  • Multicenter Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Anemia, Aplastic* / therapy
  • Fetal Blood
  • Graft vs Host Disease* / etiology
  • Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation* / adverse effects
  • Humans
  • Transplantation Conditioning
  • Treatment Outcome