Determining Binding Affinity (KD) of Radiolabeled Antibodies to Immobilized Antigens

J Vis Exp. 2022 Jun 23:(184). doi: 10.3791/63927.


Determining binding affinity (KD) is an important aspect of the characterization of radiolabeled antibodies (rAb). Typically, binding affinity is represented by the equilibrium dissociation constant, KD, and can be calculated as the concentration of antibody at which half the antibody binding sites are occupied at equilibrium. This method can be generalized to any radiolabeled antibody or other protein and peptide scaffolds. In contrast to cell-based methods, the choice of immobilized antigens is particularly useful for validating binding affinities after long-term storage of antibodies, distinguishing binding affinities of fragment antigen-binding region (Fab) arms in bispecific antibody constructs, and determining if there is variability in antigen expression between different cell lines. This method involves immobilizing a fixed amount of antigen to specified wells on a breakable 96-well plate. Then, nonspecific binding was blocked in all wells with bovine serum albumin (BSA). Subsequently, the rAb was added in a concentration gradient to all wells. A range of concentrations was chosen to allow the rAb to reach saturation, i.e., a concentration of antibody at which all antigens are continuously bound by the rAb. In designated wells without immobilized antigen, nonspecific binding of the rAb can be determined. By subtracting nonspecific binding from total binding in the wells with immobilized antigen, specific binding of the rAb to the antigen can be determined. The KD of the rAb was calculated from the resulting saturation binding curve. As an example, binding affinity was determined using radiolabeled amivantamab, a bispecific antibody for epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and cytoplasmic mesenchymal-epithelial transition (cMET) proteins.

Publication types

  • Video-Audio Media

MeSH terms

  • Antibodies, Bispecific*
  • Antigens / metabolism
  • Immunoconjugates*
  • Serum Albumin, Bovine


  • Antibodies, Bispecific
  • Antigens
  • Immunoconjugates
  • amivantamab-vmjw
  • Serum Albumin, Bovine