Purpose: Outcomes are poor in TP53-mutant (mTP53) acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), even after allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplant (HCT). Eprenetapopt (APR-246) is a first-in-class, small-molecule p53 reactivator.
Patients and methods: We conducted a phase II, multicenter, open-label trial to assess efficacy and safety of eprenetapopt combined with azacitidine as maintenance therapy after HCT (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT03931291). Patients with mTP53 MDS or AML received up to 12 cycles of eprenetapopt 3.7 g once daily intravenously on days 1-4 and azacitidine 36 mg/m2 once daily intravenously/subcutaneously on days 1-5 in 28-day cycles. The primary outcomes were relapse-free survival (RFS) and safety.
Results: Of the 84 patients screened for eligibility before HCT, 55 received a transplant. Thirty-three patients ultimately received maintenance treatment (14 AML and 19 MDS); the median age was 65 (range, 40-74) years. The median number of eprenetapopt cycles was 7 (range, 1-12). With a median follow-up of 14.5 months, the median RFS was 12.5 months (95% CI, 9.6 to not estimable) and the 1-year RFS probability was 59.9% (95% CI, 41 to 74). With a median follow-up of 17.0 months, the median overall survival (OS) was 20.6 months (95% CI, 14.2 to not estimable) and the 1-year OS probability was 78.8% (95% CI, 60.6 to 89.3). Thirty-day and 60-day mortalities from the first dose were 0% and 6% (n = 2), respectively. Acute and chronic (all grade) graft-versus-host disease adverse events were reported in 12% (n = 4) and 33% (n = 11) of patients, respectively.
Conclusion: In patients with mTP53 AML and MDS, post-HCT maintenance therapy with eprenetapopt combined with azacitidine was well tolerated. RFS and OS outcomes were encouraging in this high-risk population.