DeepLoop robustly maps chromatin interactions from sparse allele-resolved or single-cell Hi-C data at kilobase resolution

Nat Genet. 2022 Jul;54(7):1013-1025. doi: 10.1038/s41588-022-01116-w. Epub 2022 Jul 11.


Mapping chromatin loops from noisy Hi-C heatmaps remains a major challenge. Here we present DeepLoop, which performs rigorous bias correction followed by deep-learning-based signal enhancement for robust chromatin interaction mapping from low-depth Hi-C data. DeepLoop enables loop-resolution, single-cell Hi-C analysis. It also achieves a cross-platform convergence between different Hi-C protocols and micrococcal nuclease (micro-C). DeepLoop allowed us to map the genetic and epigenetic determinants of allele-specific chromatin interactions in the human genome. We nominate new loci with allele-specific interactions governed by imprinting or allelic DNA methylation. We also discovered that, in the inactivated X chromosome (Xi), local loops at the DXZ4 'megadomain' boundary escape X-inactivation but the FIRRE 'superloop' locus does not. Importantly, DeepLoop can pinpoint heterozygous single-nucleotide polymorphisms and large structure variants that cause allelic chromatin loops, many of which rewire enhancers with transcription consequences. Taken together, DeepLoop expands the use of Hi-C to provide loop-resolution insights into the genetics of the three-dimensional genome.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Alleles
  • Chromatin* / genetics
  • Genome, Human
  • Humans
  • X Chromosome
  • X Chromosome Inactivation* / genetics


  • Chromatin