Utilization of Remote Patient Monitoring Within the United States Health Care System: A Scoping Review

Telemed J E Health. 2022 Jul 11. doi: 10.1089/tmj.2022.0111. Online ahead of print.

Abstract

Introduction: Limited information exists on the landscape of studies and policies for remote patient monitoring (RPM) in the United States. Methods: We conducted a scoping review to assess (1) for which adult patient populations and health care needs is RPM being used and (2) the landscape of national- and state-level reimbursement policies for RPM. This study was guided by the Arksey and O'Malley methodological framework for scoping reviews and the Joanna Briggs Institute Manual for Evidence Synthesis. Results: A total of 399 articles were included in our final sample: 268 study articles and 131 articles of gray literature (e.g., websites, legislative bills). RPM-related articles rose drastically from 2015 to 2021, and the vast majority of articles were peer-reviewed journal articles. Of the study articles, prospective cohort studies were the most common study method, with m-health/smart watches being the most common RPM modality. RPM was found to be most commonly tested within patients with cardiovascular diseases, and the most common outcomes measured were usability and feasibility. Gray literature found 36 U.S. state Medicaid programs had reimbursement policies for RPM in 2021; however, 28 of those had at least one restriction on reimbursement (e.g., limited to specific providers). Conclusions: Despite the rapid growth in the literature on RPM and the adoption of reimbursement policies, retrospective, population-level studies, large randomized controlled trials, studies with a focus on additional favorable outcomes (e.g., quality of life), and studies evaluating trends in RPM reimbursement policies are lacking in the current literature.

Keywords: reimbursement policies; remote patient monitoring; scoping review; telehealth; telemedicine.