Genomic Biomarkers and Genome-Wide Loss-of-Heterozygosity Scores in Metastatic Prostate Cancer Following Progression on Androgen-Targeting Therapies

JCO Precis Oncol. 2022 Jul:6:e2200195. doi: 10.1200/PO.22.00195.


Purpose: To study the impact of standard-of-care hormonal therapies on metastatic prostate cancer (mPC) clinical genomic profiles in real-world practice, with a focus on homologous recombination-repair (HRR) genes.

Patients and methods: Targeted next-generation sequencing of 1,302 patients with mPC was pursued using the FoundationOne or FoundationOne CDx assays. Longitudinal clinical data for correlative analysis were curated via technology-enabled abstraction of electronic health records. Genomic biomarkers, including individual gene aberrations and genome-wide loss-of-heterozygosity (gLOH) scores, were compared according to biopsy location and time of sample acquisition (androgen deprivation therapy [ADT]-naïve, ADT-progression and post-ADT, and novel hormonal therapies [NHT]-progression), using chi-square and Wilcoxon rank-sum tests. Multivariable analysis used linear regression. False-discovery rate of 0.05 was applied to account for multiple comparisons.

Results: Eight hundred forty (65%), 132 (10%), and 330 (25%) biopsies were ADT-naïve, ADT-progression, and NHT-progression, respectively. Later-stage samples were enriched for AR, MYC, TP53, PTEN, and RB1 aberrations (all adjusted P values < .05), but prevalence of HRR-related BRCA2, ATM, and CDK12 aberrations remained stable. Primary and metastatic ADT-naïve biopsies presented similar prevalence of TP53 (36% v 31%) and BRCA2 (8% v 7%) aberrations; 81% of ADT-naïve BRCA2-mutated samples presented BRCA2 biallelic loss. Higher gLOH scores were independently associated with HRR genes (BRCA2, PALB2, and FANCA), TP53, and RB1 aberrations, and with prior exposure to hormonal therapies in multivariable analysis.

Conclusion: Prevalence of HRR-gene aberrations remains stable along mPC progression, supporting the use of diagnostic biopsies to guide poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitor treatment in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. gLOH scores increase with emerging resistance to hormonal therapies, independently of individual HRR gene mutations.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Androgen Antagonists* / therapeutic use
  • Androgens / therapeutic use
  • Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics
  • Genomics
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Prostatic Neoplasms, Castration-Resistant* / drug therapy


  • Androgen Antagonists
  • Androgens
  • Biomarkers, Tumor