The efficacy and specificity of conventional monoclonal antibody (mAb) drugs in the clinic require further improvement. Currently, the development and application of novel antibody formats for improving cancer immunotherapy have attracted much attention. Variable region-retaining antibody fragments, such as antigen-binding fragment (Fab), single-chain variable fragment (scFv), bispecific antibody, and bi/trispecific cell engagers, are engineered with humanization, multivalent antibody construction, affinity optimization and antibody masking for targeting tumor cells and killer cells to improve antibody-based therapy potency, efficacy and specificity. In this review, we summarize the application of antibody variable region engineering and discuss the future direction of antibody engineering for improving cancer therapies.
Keywords: antibody engineering; bi/trispecific killer engager; cancer immunotherapy; chimeric antigen receptor-T (CAR-T) cell; nanobody; natural killer (NK) cell; scFv.
© 2022 The Authors. Cancer Communications published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd. on behalf of Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center.