Mechanisms of resistance and tolerance against parasites in fish: the impairments caused by Neoechinorhynchus buttnerae in Colossoma macropomum

An Acad Bras Cienc. 2022 Jul 6;94(4):e20210258. doi: 10.1590/0001-3765202220210258. eCollection 2022.

Abstract

Tambaqui is the second native fish most produced species in Brazil. Currently, tambaqui fish farms deals with serious sanitary problems due to the prevalence of the parasite Neoechinorhynchus buttnerae. However, the prevalence of the acanthocephalan parasite infections depends on the resistance and tolerance interactions between the host organisms and parasites. The immune response against parasites is divided between innate and acquired immunity. The innate defense is a result of physical barriers, cellular and humoral compounds. Acquired defense occurs through the production of antibodies (humoral) and is mediated by cells, mainly by type 2 T helper lymphocytes. Most parasites secrete a variety of immunomodulatory compounds that allow coexistence with the host and chronicity of the parasite. The host-parasite relationship is complex and makes prevention and treatment difficult. However, some studies show that the use of immunostimulants may have "systemic" effects. These include improvement of the intestinal mucosa health and also in the production of cellular and humoral compounds in the whole body, thus assisting treatment and control. As such, it is important to understand the mechanisms of resistance and tolerance in the host organisms so that prevention and treatment measures can be effective.

MeSH terms

  • Acanthocephala*
  • Animals
  • Aquaculture
  • Characiformes* / parasitology
  • Fish Diseases* / parasitology
  • Parasites*