Recent studies showed that genetic polymorphism of 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is related to attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), bipolar disorder (BD) and schizophrenia (SCZ). However, no consistent conclusion has been determined. This meta-analysis aims to interrogate the relationship between MTHFR gene polymorphisms (677C>T and 1298A>C) and the occurrence of ADHD, BD and SCZ. We retrieved case-control studies that met the inclusion criteria from the PubMed database. Associations between MTHFR polymorphisms (677C>T and 1298A>C) and ADHD, BD and SCZ were measured by means of odds ratios (ORs) using a random effects model and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Additionally, sensitivity analysis and publication bias were performed. After inclusion criteria were met, a total of five studies with ADHD including 434 cases and 670 controls, 18 studies with BD including 4167 cases and 5901 controls and 44 studies with SCZ including 16,098 cases and 19913 controls were finally included in our meta-analysis. Overall, our meta-analytical results provided evidence that the MTHFR 677C>T was associated with occurrence of BD and SCZ, while the 1298A>C polymorphism was related to ADHD and BD, and additionally the sensitivity analysis indicated these results were stable and reliable. This may provide useful information for relevant studies on the etiology of psychiatric disorders.