Understanding genome evolution of polyploids requires dissection of their often highly similar subgenomes and haplotypes. Polyploid animal genome assemblies so far restricted homologous chromosomes to a 'collapsed' representation. Here, we sequenced the genome of the asexual Prussian carp, which is a close relative of the goldfish, and present a haplotype-resolved chromosome-scale assembly of a hexaploid animal. Genome-wide comparisons of the 150 chromosomes with those of two ancestral diploid cyprinids and the allotetraploid goldfish and common carp revealed the genomic structure, phylogeny and genome duplication history of its genome. It consists of 25 syntenic, homeologous chromosome groups and evolved by a recent autoploid addition to an allotetraploid ancestor. We show that de-polyploidization of the alloploid subgenomes on the individual gene level occurred in an equilibrated fashion. Analysis of the highly conserved actinopterygian gene set uncovered a subgenome dominance in duplicate gene loss of one ancestral chromosome set.
© 2022. The Author(s).