Synchronous or collision solid neoplasms and lymphomas: A systematic review of 308 case reports

Medicine (Baltimore). 2022 Jul 15;101(28):e28988. doi: 10.1097/MD.0000000000028988.


Background: The presence of a lymphoma associated with a solid synchronous neoplasm or collision neoplasm has been rarely in the literature, and a detailed characterization of these cases is lacking to date.

Objective: To describe the main clinicopathological features of synchronous/collision tumors.

Methods: A systematic search in PubMed, Scielo, and Virtual Health Library literature databases for cases or case series of synchronous or collision lymphoma and other solid neoplasms reported up to March 2021 was performed. Three reviewers independently screened the literature, extracted data, and assessed the quality of the included studies. The systematic review was performed following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Meta-Analyses guidelines.

Results: Mean age of patients was 62.9 years (52.9% men). A total of 308 cases were included (62% synchronous and 38% collision). The most frequent location of both synchronous and collision tumors was the gastrointestinal tract with the most common solid neoplasm being adenocarcinoma, and the most frequent lymphoma diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (21.7%) and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma (20.4%). Of the total number of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphomas and gastric adenocarcinomas, the presence of Helicobacter pylori infection was documented in 47.3% of them. Only 2% of all cases had a previous history of lymphoma. Thus, in most cases (98%), lymphoma was discovery incidentally. In addition, nodal lymphoma was associated with metastasis in 29 (9.4%) cases as collision tumor, most commonly (90%) in locoregional lymph nodes of the solid neoplasm.

Conclusions: The frequent association of some type of B-cell lymphoma and adenocarcinoma in synchronous/collision tumors of the gastrointestinal tract points to common pathogenic mechanisms in both neoplasia, particularly related to chronic inflammation in this location. In most cases, lymphoma identified in locoregional lymph nodes or distant of a carcinoma seems to represent an incidental finding during the carcinoma diagnostic/therapeutic approach. A synergy between carcinoma and lymphoma (involving inflammation and immunosuppression mechanisms) may favor tumor progression and dissemination. A better understating of the interactions lymphoma/carcinoma in the setting of synchronous/collision tumors may help to improve patient management and prognosis.

Publication types

  • Case Reports
  • Systematic Review

MeSH terms

  • Adenocarcinoma* / pathology
  • Female
  • Helicobacter Infections* / complications
  • Helicobacter pylori*
  • Humans
  • Inflammation / complications
  • Lymphoma, B-Cell, Marginal Zone* / pathology
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Neoplasms, Multiple Primary* / pathology
  • Stomach Neoplasms* / pathology