Psychiatric manifestations of autoimmune encephalitis

Autoimmun Rev. 2022 Sep;21(9):103145. doi: 10.1016/j.autrev.2022.103145. Epub 2022 Jul 15.


Autoimmune encephalitis is increasingly recognized as a cause of psychiatric symptoms. A wide spectrum of psychiatric manifestations have been described which may precede, follow or occur independently of neurologic features. Patients typically respond to immunotherapy, however diagnosis is challenging due to phenotypic heterogeneity. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the psychiatric features associated with encephalitis mediated by autoantibodies targeting neuronal cell-surface antigens and describe indicators of potential immunopathology underlying psychiatric manifestations.

Keywords: Autoimmune encephalitis; Clinical manifestations; Disease outcomes; Neuroimmunology; Psychiatry.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Autoantibodies
  • Encephalitis* / complications
  • Encephalitis* / diagnosis
  • Hashimoto Disease* / complications
  • Hashimoto Disease* / diagnosis
  • Humans
  • Mental Disorders*


  • Autoantibodies

Supplementary concepts

  • Hashimoto's encephalitis