Factors Influencing Craniospinal Relapse of Intracranial Germinoma After Complete Remission

World Neurosurg. 2022 Oct;166:e325-e336. doi: 10.1016/j.wneu.2022.07.010. Epub 2022 Jul 13.

Abstract

Objective: To evaluate the pathomechanism of the recurrence of intracranial germinoma after complete response and to confirm the association of the initial magnetic resonance imaging and therapeutic factors with recurrence.

Methods: This study included patients who were followed up for ≥5 years and who were treated in our hospital from 1980 to 2021. Those with germinoma and germinoma with syncytiotrophoblastic giant cells were diagnosed pathologically. Data were categorizedbased on "gender," "single region," "intraventricular dissemination at the initial diagnosis," "hydrocephalus," "types of radiation therapy (RT)," and "chemotherapy." Fisher's exact probability test was used to assess differences between the no recurrence and recurrence groups.

Results: Among 43 patients, 34 had no recurrence, 5 had delayed recurrence (≥60 months), and 4 had early recurrence (<60 months). Follow-up periods were 143.5 (60-380), 198 (88-222), and 132.5 (75-291) months for the no recurrence, delayed recurrence, and early recurrence groups, respectively. Five patients with delayed recurrence showed 3 intracranial lesions and 2 spinal lesions. Four patients with early recurrence showed 3 intracranial lesions and 1 spinal lesion. Differences in delayed recurrences (focal RT vs. RT including whole-ventricle system; P = 0.0491) were significant in Fisher's exact test.

Conclusions: RT including the whole-ventricle system reduces delayed craniospinal relapses including dissemination, local, and distant recurrences even ≥5 years after complete response in patients with primary central nervous system germinoma.

Keywords: Craniospinal relapse after complete response; Intracranial germinoma; Magnetic resonance imaging findings; Types of radiation therapy.

MeSH terms

  • Brain Neoplasms* / drug therapy
  • Brain Neoplasms* / therapy
  • Germinoma* / diagnostic imaging
  • Germinoma* / therapy
  • Humans
  • Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology
  • Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / therapy
  • Pineal Gland* / pathology
  • Radiotherapy Dosage