Big Endothelin-1 and long-term all-cause death in patients with coronary artery disease and prediabetes or diabetes after percutaneous coronary intervention

Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2022 Sep;32(9):2147-2156. doi: 10.1016/j.numecd.2022.06.002. Epub 2022 Jun 11.


Background and aims: The present study aimed to examine the association between big endothelin-1 (big ET-1) and long-term all-cause death in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) and different glucose metabolism status.

Methods and results: We consecutively enrolled 8550 patients from January 2013 to December 2013. Patients were categorized according to both status of glucose metabolism status [Diabetes Mellitus (DM), Pre-Diabetes (Pre-DM), Normoglycemia (NG)] and big ET-1 levels. Primary endpoint was all-cause death. During a median of 5.1-year follow-up periods, 301 all-cause deaths occurred. Elevated big ET-1 was significantly associated with long-term all-cause death (adjusted HR: 2.230, 95%CI 1.629-3.051; p < 0.001). Similarly, patients with DM, but not Pre-DM, had increased risk of all-cause death compared with NG group (p < 0.05). When patients were categorized by both status of glucose metabolism and big ET-1 levels, high big ET-1 were associated with significantly higher risk of all-cause death in Pre-DM (adjusted HR: 2.442, 95% CI 1.039-5.740; p = 0.041) and DM (adjusted HR: 3.162, 95% CI 1.376-7.269; p = 0.007). The Kaplan-Meier curve indicated that DM patients with the highest big ET-1 levels were associated with the greatest risk of all-cause death (p < 0.05).

Conclusions: The present data indicate that baseline big ET-1 levels were independently associated with the long-term all-cause death in DM and Pre-DM patients with CAD undergoing PCI, suggesting that big ET-1 may be a valuable marker in patients with impaired glucose metabolism.

Keywords: All-cause death; Big Endothelin-1; Diabetes; Pre-diabetes.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Blood Glucose
  • Coronary Artery Disease*
  • Diabetes Mellitus*
  • Endothelin-1
  • Humans
  • Percutaneous Coronary Intervention*
  • Prediabetic State*
  • Risk Factors
  • Time Factors
  • Treatment Outcome


  • Blood Glucose
  • Endothelin-1