Prognostic Role of RNA Expression Molecular Biomarkers in Prostate and Bladder Cancers

Eur Urol Focus. 2022 May;8(3):663-666. doi: 10.1016/j.euf.2022.06.009. Epub 2022 Jul 14.


Prostate cancer and bladder cancer are two of the most common urologic cancers. Cancer risk stratification and prediction of prognosis have always been challenging. Following recent advances in genomic and proteomic technologies, several genomic biomarkers have been developed and proposed as a noninvasive and nonexpansive approach that can supplement our current data to improve prediction and accuracy. Several biomarkers have shown efficacy in patient risk stratification and in predicting prognosis. Here we provide a mini-review of current RNA biomarkers approved by the US Food and Drug Administration, including the Decipher, Oncotype DX Prostate, and Prolaris tests. We also provide a summary of their approved clinical utility in prostate cancer and bladder cancer management. PATIENT SUMMARY: A number of tests are available for measuring expression levels of genes related to prostate or bladder cancer. We review the usefulness of these tests in stratifying risk for patients and predicting their prognosis.

Keywords: Biomarkers; Bladder cancer; Decipher; Oncotype DX; Prolaris; Prostate cancer; RNA biomarkers.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Prognosis
  • Prostate / metabolism
  • Prostatic Neoplasms* / genetics
  • Prostatic Neoplasms* / metabolism
  • Proteomics
  • RNA
  • United States
  • Urinary Bladder Neoplasms* / diagnosis
  • Urinary Bladder Neoplasms* / genetics


  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • RNA