Analysis on Four Derivative Waveforms of Photoplethysmogram (PPG) for Fiducial Point Detection

Front Public Health. 2022 Jun 30:10:920946. doi: 10.3389/fpubh.2022.920946. eCollection 2022.


Fiducial points of photoplethysmogram (PPG), first derivative PPG (VPG), and second derivative PPG (APG) are essential in extracting numerous parameters to diagnose cardiovascular disease. However, the fiducial points were usually detected using complex mathematical algorithms. Inflection points from derivatives waveforms are not thoroughly studied, whereas they can significantly assist in peak detection. This study is performed to investigate the derivative waveforms of PPG and use them to detect the important peaks of PPG, VPG, and APG. PPGs with different morphologies from 43 ischemic heart disease subjects are analyzed. Inflection points of the derivative waveforms up to the fourth level are observed, and consistent information (derivative markers) is used to detect the fiducial points of PPG, VPG, and APG with proper sequence. Moving average filter and simple thresholding techniques are applied to detect the primary points in VPG and the third derivative waveform. A total of twelve out of twenty derivative markers are found reliable in detecting fiducial points of two common types of PPG. Systolic peaks are accurately detected with 99.64% sensitivity and 99.38% positive predictivity using the 43 IHD dataset and Complex System Laboratory (CSL) Pulse Oximetry Artifact Labels database. The study has introduced the fourth derivative PPG waveform with four main points, which are significantly valuable for detecting the fiducial points of PPG, VPG, and APG.

Keywords: PPG derivatives; PPG fiducial points; acceleration plethysmogram (APG); photoplethysmogram (PPG); velocity plethysmogram (VPG).

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Algorithms
  • Artifacts*
  • Humans
  • Photoplethysmography* / methods