Animal Models of Enterovirus D68 Infection and Disease

J Virol. 2022 Aug 10;96(15):e0083322. doi: 10.1128/jvi.00833-22. Epub 2022 Jul 19.


Human enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) is a globally reemerging respiratory pathogen that is associated with the development of acute flaccid myelitis (AFM) in children. Currently, there are no approved vaccines or treatments for EV-D68 infection, and there is a paucity of data related to the virus and host-specific factors that predict disease severity and progression to the neurologic syndrome. EV-D68 infection of various animal models has served as an important platform for characterization and comparison of disease pathogenesis between historic and contemporary isolates. Still, there are significant gaps in our knowledge of EV-D68 pathogenesis that constrain the development and evaluation of targeted vaccines and antiviral therapies. Continued refinement and characterization of animal models that faithfully reproduce key elements of EV-D68 infection and disease is essential for ensuring public health preparedness for future EV-D68 outbreaks.

Keywords: AFM; EV-D68; acute flaccid myelitis; non-polio enterovirus; respiratory enterovirus.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Antiviral Agents
  • Central Nervous System Viral Diseases* / complications
  • Central Nervous System Viral Diseases* / virology
  • Child
  • Disease Outbreaks
  • Disease Progression
  • Enterovirus D, Human* / pathogenicity
  • Enterovirus D, Human* / physiology
  • Enterovirus Infections* / complications
  • Humans
  • Models, Animal*
  • Myelitis* / complications
  • Myelitis* / virology
  • Viral Vaccines


  • Antiviral Agents
  • Viral Vaccines