Overview of urological complications before, during and after kidney transplantation

Bratisl Lek Listy. 2022;123(8):560-567. doi: 10.4149/BLL_2022_089.


The result of a kidney transplantation may be affected by certain congenital or acquired urological diseases that need to be addressed before, during or after the kidney transplant. Complications accompanying kidney transplantation are not fundamentally different from the events that accompany other difficult surgical procedures. However, their course is usually modified by adverse circumstances in the recipient - uremia, dialysis treatment, immunosuppression. The incidence of urological complications is reported in the range of 1 to 30 % of the transplants, and they represent up to one half of all surgical complications. They can cause a significant morbidity and mortality and can lead to a delayed onset of the function and even to a loss of the transplanted kidney.Urological complications that need to be addressed before kidney transplantation include anomalies or pathological changes in the lower urinary tract, pelvic involvement in atherosclerosis or previous kidney transplants, infectious foci in lithiasis or pyonephrosis, large polycystic kidneys and malignancies. During the kidney transplantation itself, vascular complications, and complications connected with the reconstruction of the lower urinary tract can occur. Other complications are bacterial and viral infections and malignancies. All these complications require a rapid and accurate diagnosis and subsequent targeted treatment with intention to maintain a functional kidney transplant (Fig. 11, Ref. 36). Text in PDF www.elis.sk Keywords: kidney transplantation, urological, vascular, infectious, bleeding, complications.

MeSH terms

  • Humans
  • Incidence
  • Kidney Diseases* / complications
  • Kidney Transplantation* / adverse effects
  • Postoperative Complications / etiology
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Urologic Diseases* / etiology