Umbilical cord arterial blood lactate dehydrogenase and pH as predictors of perinatal outcome in high-risk term pregnancies: a cohort study

J Mother Child. 2022 Jul 20. doi: 10.34763/jmotherandchild.20222601.d-22-00004. Online ahead of print.

Abstract

Background: Birth asphyxia is a common cause of perinatal morbidity, mortality.

Objective: To compare the efficacy of umbilical cord arterial blood lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and pH as predictors of neonatal outcome in high-risk term pregnancies using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves.

Material and methods: Present retrospective cohort study was conducted in the rural tertiary centre of Northern India over two years (January 2017-December 2018). Neonates delivered to 300 term (≥37 - ≤42 weeks) high-risk antenatal women were enrolled after fulfilling inclusion criteria. Immediately after delivery of a newborn by any mode, the segment of the umbilical cord (10 cm) was double clamped, cut, and arterial blood samples were taken for LDH and pH and were compared with neonatal outcome. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS 22.0 software.

Results: For all 300 neonates mean ± SD values of cord blood LDH and pH were 545.19 ± 391.93 U/L and 7.13 ± 0.15, respectively. High cord blood lactate and low pH values were significantly associated with adverse neonatal outcomes including neonatal resuscitation, NICU admission, complications and early neonatal deaths (p=0.000). The sensitivity, specificity and negative predictive value of cord blood LDH in the prediction of neonatal death was 100.00%, 53.17%, 100%, and pH was 93.75%, 53.17%, 99.34%, respectively.

Conclusion: Cord blood lactate and pH help in the early prediction of neonatal outcomes, but cord blood lactate is a better predictor.

Keywords: Birth Asphyxia; Encephalopathy; Neonate; Pregnancy Umbilical cord.