Association between IL-1A and IL-1B gene polymorphisms with peri-implantitis in a Portuguese population-a pilot study

PeerJ. 2022 Jul 14:10:e13729. doi: 10.7717/peerj.13729. eCollection 2022.


Background: Scientific evidence indicates that biological complications in dental implants tend to be concentrated in a subset of individuals, which seems to imply that the host response may play a determining role in implant success. Over the last few decades, several polymorphisms have been studied. Polymorphisms in the interleukin (IL) 1 gene cluster have been associated with periodontitis. There are some similar features in the sequence of immunopathological events in peri-implant and periodontal infections. We aimed to investigate if individuals carrying the genetic single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the IL-1A (rs1800587) and IL-1B (rs1143634) genes are more susceptible to develop peri-implantitis.

Methods: A cross-sectional analytic pilot study was conducted in 20 Caucasian Portuguese subjects divided into two groups: 10 subjects with peri-implantitis and 10 subjects with peri-implant health (control group). Samples containing cells from the buccal mucosa were stored at -20 °C and later submitted to the DNA extraction process. Genetic analysis was performed using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis. Data were analyzed by using descriptive and inferential statistical methodologies.

Results: For the IL-1A (-889) gene polymorphism, it was observed that the mutated allele was present in a higher percentage in the peri-implantitis group compared to the control group (30% vs 15% respectively, Fisher's exact test, p = 0.45). For the IL-1B (+3954) gene polymorphism, it was also observed that the altered allele was present in a higher percentage in the disease group compared to the control group (35% vs 10% respectively, Fisher's exact test, p = 0.13). The positive genotype (at least one allele with nucleotide sequence changed in both genes) was detected in six patients, five belonging to the disease group and one to the health group.

Conclusions: Regarding IL-1 gene polymorphisms, there was no statistically significant difference between the health and disease group, however a trend should be highlighted, showing a potential link between the IL-1 genotype and peri-implantitis. More studies are needed to clarify the role of genetic polymorphisms in the development of peri-implantitis.

Keywords: Genetic polymorphisms; Genetics; Interleukin-1; Interleukin-1-genotype; Peri-implant disease; Peri-implantitis; Single-nucleotide polymorphism.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Humans
  • Interleukin-1 / genetics
  • Peri-Implantitis* / genetics
  • Periodontitis*
  • Pilot Projects
  • Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide / genetics
  • Portugal


  • Interleukin-1
  • IL1A protein, human
  • IL1B protein, human

Grants and funding

This work was funded by the Oral Reconstruction Foundation (ORF42105) and by national funds through the FCT - Foundation for Science and Technology, I.P., (under the project UIDB/04585/2020). The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.