Recent advances in the management of systemic sclerosis-associated interstitial lung disease

Curr Opin Pulm Med. 2022 Sep 1;28(5):441-447. doi: 10.1097/MCP.0000000000000901. Epub 2022 Jul 18.


Purpose of review: Interstitial lung disease associated with systemic sclerosis (SSc-ILD) is a frequent organ manifestation leading to high morbidity and mortality. In 2020, the European management recommendations for SSc-ILD were published. Despite being comprehensive, several questions could not be answered or no consensus was reached.

Recent findings: We highlight recent advances in the screening and early diagnosis, including surveys emphasizing that still 30-40% of all experts do not order baseline HRCTs in their SSc patients. We discuss recent advances in the assessment of disease progression, risk prediction and monitoring of SSc-ILD including novel insights in the disease course of SSc-ILD, clinical predictive factors for disease progression, the role of increasing extent of ILD on serial HRCT and radiomics, PET/CT and home spirometry as sensitive future tools to monitor SSc-ILD patients. We describe recent advances in the treatment of SSc-ILD, including novel data and trials as well as post hoc analyses of clinical trials on mycophenolate, cyclophosmphamide, tocilizumab, rituximab, riociguat and nintedanib. Lastly, we elucidate on peripheral blood cell gene expression profiling as a novel way to identify patients with a better treatment response to mycophenolate.

Summary: In this review, we highlight recent advances in the management of SSc-ILD.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Disease Progression
  • Humans
  • Immunosuppressive Agents / therapeutic use
  • Lung
  • Lung Diseases, Interstitial* / diagnosis
  • Lung Diseases, Interstitial* / drug therapy
  • Lung Diseases, Interstitial* / etiology
  • Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography
  • Scleroderma, Systemic* / diagnosis


  • Immunosuppressive Agents