Use of Continuous Glucose Monitors by People Without Diabetes: An Idea Whose Time Has Come?

J Diabetes Sci Technol. 2023 Nov;17(6):1686-1697. doi: 10.1177/19322968221110830. Epub 2022 Jul 20.


Background: Continuous glucose monitor (CGM) systems were originally intended only for people with diabetes. Recently, there has been interest in monitoring glucose concentrations in a variety of other situations. As data accumulate to support the use of CGM systems in additional states unrelated to diabetes, the use of CGM systems is likely to increase accordingly.

Methods: PubMed and Google Scholar were searched for articles about the use of CGM in individuals without diabetes. Relevant articles that included sufficient details were queried to identify what cohorts of individuals were adopting CGM use and to define trends of use.

Results: Four clinical user cases were identified: (1) metabolic diseases related to diabetes with a primary dysregulation of the insulin-glucose axis, (2) metabolic diseases without a primary pathophysiologic derangement of the insulin-glucose axis, (3) health and wellness, and (4) elite athletics. Seven trends in the use of CGM systems in people without diabetes were idenfitied which pertained to both FDA-cleared medical grade products as well as anticipated future products, which may be regulated differently based on intended populations and indications for use.

Conclusions: Wearing a CGM has been used not only for diabetes, but with a goal of improving glucose patterns to avoid diabetes, improving mental or physical performance, and promoting motivate healthy behavioral changes. We expect that clinicians will become increasingly aware of (1) glycemic patterns from CGM tracings that predict an increased risk of diabetes, (2) specific metabolic glucotypes from CGM tracings that predict an increased risk of diabetes, and (3) new genetic and genomic biomarkers in the future.

Keywords: CGM; athletes; continuous glucose monitor; healthy; obesity; prediabetes.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Blood Glucose / metabolism
  • Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1*
  • Humans
  • Insulin
  • Insulin, Regular, Human


  • Blood Glucose
  • Insulin
  • Insulin, Regular, Human