Synthesizing Laboratory and Field Experiments to Quantify Dominant Transformation Mechanisms of 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid (2,4-D) in Aquatic Environments

Environ Sci Technol. 2022 Aug 2;56(15):10838-10848. doi: 10.1021/acs.est.2c03132. Epub 2022 Jul 20.


Laboratory studies used to assess the environmental fate of organic chemicals such as pesticides fail to replicate environmental conditions, resulting in large errors in predicted transformation rates. We combine laboratory and field data to identify the dominant loss processes of the herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) in lakes for the first time. Microbial and photochemical degradation are individually assessed using laboratory-based microcosms and irradiation studies, respectively. Field campaigns are conducted in six lakes to quantify 2,4-D loss following large-scale herbicide treatments. Irradiation studies show that 2,4-D undergoes direct photodegradation, but modeling efforts demonstrated that this process is negligible under environmental conditions. Microcosms constructed using field inocula show that sediment microbial communities are responsible for degradation of 2,4-D in lakes. Attempts to quantify transformation products are unsuccessful in both laboratory and field studies, suggesting that their persistence is not a major concern. The synthesis of laboratory and field experiments is used to demonstrate best practices in designing laboratory persistence studies and in using those results to mechanistically predict contaminant fate in complex aquatic environments.

Keywords: 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid; biodegradation; contaminant fate and transport; herbicides; photodegradation.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid
  • Biodegradation, Environmental
  • Herbicides*
  • Pesticides*
  • Photolysis
  • Water Pollutants, Chemical* / analysis


  • Herbicides
  • Pesticides
  • Water Pollutants, Chemical
  • 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid