Importance: Dapagliflozin was shown to reduce the cardiovascular (CV) and kidney outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes. However, data are limited on the relationship of the effect and safety with the concurrent use of CV medications in patients with type 2 diabetes.
Objective: To assess whether the cardiorenal efficacy and safety of dapagliflozin were consistent with and without background use of CV medications commonly used for heart failure (HF) and kidney disease in patients with type 2 diabetes.
Design, setting, and participants: This study is a prespecified secondary analysis of DECLARE-TIMI 58, which was a randomized trial of dapagliflozin vs placebo in 17 160 patients with type 2 diabetes and either atherosclerotic disease or multiple risk factors for CV disease. Patients were stratified by baseline use of the following CV medications: angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin-receptor blockers (ACEI/ARBs), β-blockers, diuretics, and mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists (MRAs). The study was conducted from May 2013 to September 2018, and data were evaluated for this analysis from February 2021 to May 2022.
Interventions: Dapagliflozin or placebo.
Main outcomes and measures: The outcomes of interest were the composite of CV death or hospitalization for HF (HHF), HHF alone, and a kidney-specific composite outcome (persistent ≥40% decrease in estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR], end-stage kidney disease, or kidney-related death).
Results: Among 17 160 patients, 13 950 (81%) used ACEI/ARBs, 9030 (53%) used β-blockers, 6205 (36%) used diuretics, and 762 (4%) used MRAs at baseline. Changes in blood pressure and eGFR at 48 months with dapagliflozin compared with placebo did not differ regardless of concurrent therapy (placebo-corrected change, -1.6 mm Hg [95% CI, -4.2 to 1.0] to -2.6 mm Hg [95% CI, -3.3 to -2.9]; P > .05 for each interaction). Dapagliflozin consistently reduced the risk of CV death/HHF, HHF alone, and the kidney-specific composite outcome regardless of background use of selected medications (hazard ratio [HR] range: HR, 0.50; 95% CI, 0.39-0.63; to HR, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.72-0.95; P > .05 for each interaction). In patients receiving ACEI/ARBs + β-blockers + diuretics (n = 4243), dapagliflozin reduced the risk of CV death/HHF and of the kidney-specific outcome by 24% (HR, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.62-0.93) and 38% (HR, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.44-0.87), respectively. There were no significant treatment interactions with the concomitant CV medications for adverse events of volume depletion, acute kidney injury, or hyperkalemia (range: HR, 0.12; 95% CI, 0.02-0.99; to HR, 1.04; 95% CI, 0.83-1.32; P > .05 for each interaction).
Conclusions and relevance: Dapagliflozin consistently reduced the risk of CV and kidney outcomes irrespective of background use of various CV medications without any treatment interaction for key safety events. These data show the clinical benefit and safety of dapagliflozin in a broad range of patients with type 2 diabetes regardless of background therapy.
Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01730534.